The dog’s urinary system

The dog’s urinary system
The kidney consists of an outer cortex; the medulla, which is inside; and the renal pelvis, a collecting pocket that extends into the ureter.
The same organs are responsible for creating and eliminating urine in dogs of either sex. In order, they are: the kidneys, from which two ureters lead to the bladder. A single tube, the urethra, carries the urine from the bladder to the outside world.
All of these organs are located in the abdomen. The bean-shaped kidneys are found beneath the lumbar arch, near the first lumbar vertebrae. The left kidney is slightly more caudal than the right. The two ureters are attached to the bladder’s dorsal side and the bladder is located just in front of the pelvis. The urethra follows a different path in males and females. In bitches, it is shorter and usually wider. It opens into the vestibule of the vagina through the small urethral papilla.
In male dogs, the urethra is longer and narrower and consists of three parts: the prostatic, membranous and penile sections.
The Structure of the Kidneys
Urine Formation
Storage and Elimination of Urine
Regulation